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Base One Distributed Computing in Depth


This document summarizes the features and components of Base One's distributed computing architecture, for harnessing the combined power of many Windows PCs and database servers to run large applications. The major benefits of this design are that it ...

  • makes it practical for groups of Windows computers to be applied to large-scale problems

  • supports databases from all of the major vendors, including IBM, Microsoft, Oracle, Sybase, and MySQL

  • can be operated and administered either locally, on a LAN, or across the Internet

  • incorporates a high degree of reliability, recoverability, and fault tolerance
  • has extensive application security and administration facilities

  • provides a rapid application development (RAD) framework, enabling quick prototyping and flexible modification of existing applications

  • includes comprehensive documentation, examples, and programming tools that make it easy to learn and use effectively

  • generates efficient, scalable, multi-user applications that are easy to build, deploy, and maintain

  • is capable of achieving timely, cost-effective solutions to demanding applications
For the sake of clarity, the underlying subsystems and layers of abstraction in Base One's architecture are presented from the bottom-up, in the following sections:
1. Rich Client Core Components
a RAD framework of class libraries and tools for constructing database applications that are efficient, robust, portable, and secure
2. Distributed Batch Processing Services
a general mechanism for automating repetitive, large-scale jobs in a distributed computing environment, built on top of Base One's core class libraries

3. Grid Computing Middleware
the layer that implements a "Virtual Supercomputer", built upon Base One's Distributed Batch Processing Services and core components

1. Rich Client Core Components

Under each Base One application is a core of general purpose programs (class libraries) and utilities for database application development. These facilities, comprising the Base One Foundation Component Library (BFC) and the Base One Internet Server (BIS), are implemented on top of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) and .NET, enabling an organization to leverage in-house Windows programming skills, and assuring the smoothest, most complete integration with the Windows environment. Collectively, the modular components of BFC provide all of the essential ingredients of a complete RAD framework, tailored for maximum productivity with the full range of Windows operating system interfaces, including COM (ActiveX) and the .NET languages.

BFC's class libraries are the basic building blocks from which Rich Client applications are constructed:

Accompanying the BFC class libraries are a number of closely related programs, which are integral to the complete Base One framework:

Before elaborating further, it should be noted that there is a common feature in all of these programs:

Comprehensive error and exception handling, with meaningful messages, and provisions for automated recovery from failures. The full spectrum of errors, such as database errors (regardless of the database vendor), data entry errors, and disk crashes can all be logged and handled in a uniform fashion.

Anatomy of a Rich Client application

Anatomy of a Rich Client application

1.1 Base One Database Classes

At the heart of Base One's design, with connections to virtually every other component, is the Database Class library. Its primary purpose is to make it easy to write efficient, reliable applications for large, multi-user databases. Also, the Database Classes provide a measure of portability, so that applications can be written once and used with any major database system, without reprogramming. Supported products include IBM DB2, Microsoft SQL Server and Access, Oracle, Sybase Adaptive Server, MySQL, and other networked databases.

Aside from the convenience of presenting a unified, portable database interface, Base One's software relieves programmers from some of the nastier details that are vital to database reliability and performance, especially as applications are scaled up. The Database Classes support these advanced features:
  • rigorous, efficient transaction processing
    automatically synchronizing access and guaranteeing the ability to recover (rollback) from failures, while permitting a high degree of concurrency
  • intelligent use of local storage for database caching and buffering
    increasing throughput by minimizing network traffic and server load
  • optimizations through high-efficiency, DBMS-specific APIs
    using native direct connections instead of ODBC, as appropriate

  • multiple compressed BLOBS (Binary Large Objects)
    extending individual records to include (logically) files such as graphics, text, sounds, Microsoft Office documents, or anything else required, as "attached objects"

  • interactive, script-driven database Command Processor
    for local or remote administrative access to the server's database

  • database trace facility for debugging and performance analysis
    allowing you to trace through any BFC / MFC, COM or .NET application displaying or logging all database function calls, the values of passed parameters, SQL statements, and processing start and completion times.

1.2 Base One Internet Server (BIS)

3-tier Rich Client architecture

The Base One Internet Server (BIS) makes it possible for the Database Classes to operate across the Internet, transparently, as if the data resided locally or on a LAN. Except for the Database Classes, programs don't call BIS directly, so the complexities of Internet access are completely hidden from the rest of the system, and there is no need for additional network-related programming. BIS moves data between remote databases and Windows clients (or web application servers). The database servers may be Windows, Linux/Unix, iSeries, or OS390 computers. Using efficient, low-level TCP/IP communications, messages containing blocks of database and transaction processing requests and results are automatically sent to and from the Internet Server. As an added security measure, BIS is easily configurable for custom encryption of all Internet traffic.

1.3 Rich Client Applications

Programs built on top of BFC are "Rich Client" applications, which means they can operate more efficiently in a Client/Server environment, using local client resources to reduce the load on the network and central database server. For example, it may be vastly more efficient to maintain local copies of lookup tables and selected files, or to perform local processing on intermediate result sets, rather than placing an additional burden on the server. The Rich Client model makes it much easier for applications to gain these kinds of performance advantages.

Since all database access in BFC goes through its Database Classes, any Rich Client application also enjoys the benefits of DBMS portability and network transparency. In addition, Rich Client applications can employ BFC's integrated class libraries for Screen Controls, Reporting and Graphing, Numbers, and Utilities, as well as its administrative tools for Data Dictionary maintenance, Security, System Administration, Command Processor, etc. 

It's easy to build applications on the Rich Client model, because you only need standard Microsoft programming tools like C#, Visual C++, Visual Basic, VB.NET, ASP, and ASP.NET. Rich Client relies only on Visual Studio, standard runtime libraries and COM/ActiveX components, interfaces familiar to many Windows programmer.

Many of BFC's core facilities were themselves built as Rich Client applications, allowing administrators to perform complex server maintenance tasks without programming. This design has the virtue that it makes it easy to use these tools either locally or remotely, on a LAN, WAN, or across the Internet (through BIS). The programming behind these facilities also was greatly simplified by using the Rich Client architecture. Had we been constrained to develop a "conventional" browser-based implementation for our full set of server administration tools, there is no doubt that programming would have been far more difficult, and the resulting performance, reliability, and interfaces would have suffered.

1.4 Security System Components

Security is of particular importance in the context of distributed computing, where a large, heterogeneous collection of PCs must be safely and reliably coordinated across the Internet. The Rich Client Security System has an extensive set of capabilities, tightly integrated into BFC's Data Dictionary, Screen Controls, and Database Classes. This provides a single, integrated authentication and authorization framework for all Rich Client applications. In addition to fully supporting native database security features, Base One's Security System adds a number of significant extensions to provide finer control over users and application-level security restrictions. These DBMS-independent enhancements make it easier to build and administer highly secure custom applications, whether they run locally or across the Internet.

Example of one of BFC's User Administration screens

The above is an example of one of BFC's User Administration screens. Through this and other such forms, the Rich Client Security System supports the following powerful security features:
  • supporting back-end database security features for checking/changing passwords, grouping users and granting/revoking database privileges

  • setting per-application access privileges on the basis of user groups

  • defining security groups to control access to a particular set of screen objects, such as dialogs, forms, menus, buttons, web pages, and individual functions. 

  • specifying prohibited actions for a particular set of users through security rules

  • database session monitoring - keeping track of who is logged on, using which application, without cookies, and regardless of what machine they're using
  • restricting against multiple logons to the database by the same user

  • establishing custom encryption protocols between clients and servers

  • automatic generation of per-user log files

  • interactive facilities for controlling database access, allowing administrators to force users to log off, restrict logons, and broadcast messages, for example, in preparation for system maintenance or shutdown

  • built-in types of both interactive and batch (non-interactive) users for efficient sharing and pooling of server resources, to handle very large numbers of users, distributed processing, and grid computing applications

2. Distributed Batch Processing Services

BFC includes the necessary components to build and administer very large, highly automated applications that efficiently harness the computing power of multiple PCs against a large, central database. Any Rich Client application can incorporate both the facilities for batch processing itself and for submitting, scheduling and monitoring batch jobs. For this purpose, BFC includes Batch Job Servers and Base/1 Internet Servers, plus sample batch jobs.

In order to use batch processing, large jobs are broken down into smaller pieces that can be run individually, often in parallel, and with some set of interdependencies that determine constraints on the sequence job steps. For example, a large billing routine might be broken into sub-parts, each of which handles a different range of customer numbers. If multiple batch processors are available, the whole billing job could be sped up considerably. Once all of the billing steps are completed, another job might be automatically started to perform some consolidated accounting, and that might be followed by a reporting job, which may again be divided into a set of jobs that can run concurrently, and so on.

Since the Distributed Batch Processing Services are built on top of BFC and its Database Classes, batch programs automatically get the benefit of core features, such as simplified DBMS and network-independent programming, automatic transaction processing, caching, buffering, and local data optimizations, integrated security features, reporting and graphing capabilities, etc.

The Batch System's design also has these features and benefits:
  • robust database-driven architecture, fault-tolerant because it relies only on transaction processing and integrity mechanisms, without the complication of fragile interprocess communication and master/slave relationships. Databases are fully protected from failures by well-established systems for reliability and recovery, as provided and supported by the DBMS vendors themselves, e.g. disk mirroring, multi-processor clusters, transaction logging, remote hot backups, etc.

  • supports a high degree of database concurrency, ensuring scalability with a locking strategy that minimizes database lockouts, so that many users and batch PCs can share a common, dynamic database efficiently. (Programmers can employ basic transaction commits, without resorting to less efficient distributed transaction commit logic.)

  • automatically balances workload across a dynamic pool of available PCs, yielding better overall thoughput by making fuller use of available computing power within an organization, or even outside of it (securely through BIS), freely intermixing low-end Windows PCs with high-end servers.

2.1 Batch Job Servers

A Batch Job Server is just a non-interactive Rich Client application that gets its work from a database instead of from an end-user sitting in front of the computer. Batch Job Servers look for work by examining Batch Job records retrieved from the database at regular intervals and each time a job completes. Once activated, the Batch Job Server decides which job to run next from the shared pool of pending batch jobs stored in the database.

Any idle PC, whether on the Internet or a LAN, can be turned into a Batch Job Server. This is done by logging on to a Rich Client application using a Batch User ID. The computer automatically becomes a "batch machine" that is capable of running as a Batch Job Server. Batch Job Servers do not need to be configured as Windows servers. That is, a Batch Job Server can run under the inexpensive client versions of Microsoft Windows (such as Windows XP).

If bottlenecks arise that would benefit more from increased horsepower per box, rather than further subdivision to a larger number of low-end PCs, then some percentage of Batch Job Servers are candidates for heavy-duty Windows server machines.

For every batch job there is a Batch Job record in the database containing the name of a Batch Function and the circumstances under which it may run. A Batch Function is just a C++ global function or a C# or VB.NET function in a .NET assembly, written according to some simple conventions that allow it to be associated with one or more Batch Job records. As long as end-user interaction is not needed, many existing DOS and Windows programs can also be run as batch jobs.

2.2 Batch Administration Facilities

Sample Batch Job Detail Screen
Sample Batch Job Detail Screen

Using a standard batch administration form, job dependencies can be set so that processing can be done in parallel by multiple machines. Batch jobs can be designed to wait for any combination of criteria, such as: a scheduled date/time or on completion of one or more other batch jobs with specific completion codes.

Sample Batch Job Monitor Screen
Sample Batch Job Monitor Screen

The overseeing operators monitor the progress of batch jobs from their own workstations, logging on with their own User IDs. With the use of Base One's Internet Server (BIS), operations staff can launch jobs and monitor results from remote locations - while getting the performance benefits of running the jobs on batch machines close to the database.

3. Grid Computing Middleware

Taking a collection of Batch Job Servers in combination with one or more Base One Internet Servers, one can easily construct a "Virtual Supercomputer", capable of securely sharing data and computational resources, on demand, over a widely dispersed area. This essentially constitutes a RAD framework for grid computing, particularly well suited to large database applications, because it builds upon the unique capabilities of BFC's Rich Client model and core Database Classes. In contrast to other approaches to grid computing, Base One's Virtual Supercomputer has these distinctive features and advantages:
  • requires no specialized hardware or system software, since Base One's design is compatible with standard versions of Windows.

  • works with any major DBMS, because this is a basic feature of Base One's core Database Classes, including automatic support of high-speed native DBMS APIs.

  • provides extra security, in addition to standard DBMS and operating system features, through the Rich Client Security System and BIS custom encryption.

  • enables rapid, controlled applications deployment, because executables can can be installed and updated without touching the Windows registry, system directories, or other operating system files. There are no browser compatibility issues, since no browser is required. For client machines that use Base One's Internet Server (BIS) for data access, there is no need to worry about ODBC settings or DBMS communication software compatibility, because the actual database software need only reside on these servers (BFC handles the rest).

The Base One Virtual Supercomputer

(The Base One Virtual Supercomputer)

The above diagram depicts a scenario where the production system (in gray) resides on an organization's LAN, in close proximity to a "data warehouse" managed by a Virtual Supercomputer (VS, in light yellow) on the same LAN. Some client PCs are dedicated to the production system, some to the VS data warehouse, and some PCs can access either system.  Through Base One's Internet Server (BIS), a large number of remote PCs (as well as other remote Virtual Supercomputers) may be making sporadic, sometimes heavy use of the data warehouse, with minimum impact on routine production activities. The VS can efficiently harvest production data at regular intervals, to maintain archival data, aggregate statistics, and other information suitable for querying, reporting, and sharing with a larger audience.

Taking it to the next level - a Virtual Supercomputer network

Much of the efficiency in Base One's distributed processing architecture derives from its database-centric design, which leverages the strengths of commercial database technology as to reliability, security, efficiency, and scalability. Capacity and performance can be maximized through a variety of techniques, such as high-speed transaction processing, buffering, caching, and use of low-level APIs, so that a single Virtual Supercomputer database could, in theory, grow to immense proportions simply by adding PCs and increasing database capacity. On the other hand, some very large applications would be better served by a loosely coupled network of multiple Virtual Supercomputers, each with its own database.

The above diagram illustrates such a scenario, carrying the idea even further to clusters of networked Virtual Supercomputers, each corresponding to a huge government agency, with its own infrastructure, bureaucracy, and regulatory restrictions. The sheer size and geographic scale of each agency warrants multiple, fairly autonomous sites, but each agency also requires some degree of central aggregation and control. Yet another level of aggregation is then required to bring together information from all of these sources into a single repository that can analyze, report, and act on the whole picture.

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